At a glance:
Population: 30.4 million
Primary language: Portuguese
Mozambique Flag Credit: www.worldatlas.com
Currency: Mozambican metical
GDP: 3.7% growth in 2017
Natural resources: gold, emeralds, copper, iron ore, bauxite, natural gas
Religions: Roman Catholicism (28%), Islam (17%), Zionist Christian (15.5%), Protestant (12.2%)
Literacy Rate: 47% (total) 28% (women)
Fertility Rate: 5.9 children per woman (one of highest in the world)
Life Expectancy: 58.31 (total) 60.40 (women) 56.12 (men)
Leading Cause of Death: HIV / AIDS
Located on the coast of the Indian Ocean, Mozambique is a long, narrow country bordering six other countries: Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Swaziland. Its land is mostly coastal lowlands. Plateaus and highlands lie to the west with mountains scattered along the western border. The country’s largest lake is Lake Malawi. (1)
Map of Southern Africa Credit: Google Maps
Bantu-speaking people are believed to be among Mozambique’s earliest inhabitants, 2,000 years ago. Throughout its history, people from foreign lands arrived, attracted by the land’s rich mineral resources and prominent position along trade routes. Arabs were the first to arrive, followed by Indians and later the Portuguese. It was gold that lured the Portuguese in the 16th century. By the late 17th century, ivory had replaced gold as the land’s major commodity, Less than a century later, slaves took over as the major commodity. (3)
Though the Portuguese had colonized what is now known as Mozambique, it was in 1951 that Portugal declared Mozambique its overseas province. This led to the formation of nationalist groups which after an armed struggle, gained independence on June 25, 1975. Following independence, 90 percent of the Portuguese settlers left the area. (4)
Samora Machel served as Mozambique’s first president. He came to office with Socialist ideas including the forced creation of communal rural villages. Civil war erupted and continued for 17 years. Much of the infrastructure, including roads, railways, schools and health centers, was destroyed during this time. Millions fled to neighboring countries, and over 1,000,000 were killed. (4)
In 1990 a new constitution was adopted which embraced a multiparty, democratic system and a free-market economy.
Traces of Arab, Indian and Portuguese culture remain in Mozambique, most evident perhaps in the Portuguese language still spoken. (Many indigenous languages and English are also spoken.) It is a blend of many cultures, but the Mozambique people share a love of song, poetry, dance and performance. They also unite around their favorite sport - football (soccer). (5)
Click to watch children performing a traditional Mozambique dance.
The cuisine of Mozambique has also retained some of its colonialist past. The Arabs, Indians and Portuguese each brought with them a variety of spices. One popular Mozambican dish is Matata, a seafood stew using clams in a peanut sauce. Indeed, with its long coastline, seafood is plentiful. A few staple foods are maize porridge and meat or vegetable stew. (5)
Health and Education
With a high poverty rate, both health and education services are meager, especially in rural areas. More than half of the population must walk an hour or more to the nearest health facility. Mozambique has one of the lowest doctor/patient ratios in the world: 3 per 100,000 people. Progress has been made in recent years in reducing mortality rates among children 5 and younger and improving access to care. A 97 percent rate of pregnant women receiving prenatal care, at least 1 visit, has also been achieved. A continuing challenge that Mozambicans face is HIV/AIDS. More than 1 in 10 have been infected. (7)
Education services, too, are scant. Though 94% of girls attend primary school, more than half drop out by the fifth grade. Even more dismal - only 1% of the female population goes on to college. Reading achievement among primary schoolchildren is also low. One positive step the government took in the early 2000s was to eliminate school fees which nearly doubled the school population rate. Because poverty is high in Mozambique, many children must work to help support their families. One estimate showed a 22 percent child labor rate. (7)
It is a celebration of culture, a celebration of history, and a celebration of unity. Both on the African continent and around the globe, Africa Day is marked by parades, festivals, and more.
A little history will shed light on its origin and meaning.
A movement towards Pan-Africanism or the joining together of diverse independent African countries began in 1963 with the founding of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). Its founding followed the decolonization and independence of 17 countries from European powers between 1958 and 1963. Representatives from 32 countries met in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia that year to officially state their solidarity. (1)
It was Julius Nyerere, Tanzania’s first prime minister, who along with the leaders of 3 other African countries, founded the OAU. (3) Its goals were mainly political and multifaceted in the organization’s early days. The goals included ridding the continent of any remaining colonization and apartheid, promoting solidarity and protecting the sovereignty of member states, collaborating on development, and encouraging international cooperation. (4)
Around this time, several countries began celebrating a day of African unity called African Liberation Day.
Fast forward to 2001, and the organization had grown, taking in 21 more independent countries and transforming from a political to more of an economically-focused organization. The name, too, had changed. It was now called the African Union. (1)
African Liberation Day evolved to African Day. It has become a channel for many cultures to come together and honor their diversity and the goals of the African Union. In several countries including Ghana, Zimbabwe, and Mali, Africa Day is designated as a public holiday. (2)
Other countries, such as South Africa, have found alternative ways to mark the noteworthy growth of the African continent - keeping their eyes on future growth they would like to see. At Stellenbosch University in South Africa, the African Union flag flies along with the flags of the 54 countries of the union. South Africans were also encouraged to learn the African Union anthem. (4)
A celebration in Tanzania includes cultural performances, a food bazaar featuring traditional cuisine, exhibitions and a concert featuring musicians from the DRC, Mozambique and Namibia. (6)
Africa Day is celebrated on other continents too. Some Africans living abroad gather in cultural garb, listen to traditional music and trade recipes. (3)
The Irish celebrate Africa Day in several cities including Dublin where an annual family event takes place. It includes live music featuring both Irish and African musicians, traditional African drumming and dance workshops, and African arts and crafts. (5)
It is clear from Africa Day that the culture from the multitude of African countries carries far and wide.
A teacher wears many hats. Some days a counselor, some a nurse, others a social worker. Always an instructor. Grace Silas Laizer of Saving Grace School in Arusha, Tanzania is at once teacher, administrator and recruiter.
Back here in the United States about 3.6 million teachers fill these multifaceted roles. On this last day of Teacher Appreciation Week, let’s take a look back at how this honorary week began and at the evolution of teaching in America.
Former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt once proclaimed: “Education is the cornerstone of liberty.” It was this value that she placed on education which led her to propose to Congress a day set aside each year in honor of teachers. This national teacher’s day became May 7 and was first celebrated in 1953. (1)
Later, in 1984, the National Parent Teacher Association expanded Roosevelt’s idea when they dedicated an entire week in May to thank our teachers.
Teaching in America has come a long way since our colonial beginnings. In these fledgling days of our country’s inception, it was mostly men who educated the young. The virtues of family, religion and community were emphasized more than the three Rs. The curriculum was heavily influenced by the strict religious teachings of the day. The men were often innkeepers or farmers who stepped in to fill the role of schoolmaster during their off-season. The more educated men in the cities used teaching as a stepping stone to a career in law or the church. (2)
In the late 1830s reformers such as Horace Mann fought to make schools democratic, universal and free. These new public schools were called common schools and with the attempted inclusion of all children in the education process, a demand for teachers grew. In order to fill the staffing shortages and as men were drawn to other professions, new industries and the frontier, communities turned to women to fill the void. (2)
The common school reformers considered one of women’s most important qualifications their femininity. They viewed women as nurturing and of high moral character. They also set a precedent - women would be paid ⅓ of what men received. (2)
In many schools, the “schoolmarms” were young, sometimes only 14 or 15. Some of the pupils might be older than the teachers. Many districts required the teachers to resign when they married. (Such a rule remained in place in some areas as recently as the 1930s.) (5) The job then, like today, had its challenges. Some teachers were in charge of instructing as many as 60 children of various ages in a one-room schoolhouse. (2)
It was in the middle of the nineteenth century that states began requiring a basic academic competence and attendance at summer institutes for training. “Normal schools” were established for the systematic training of teachers. These schools prepared teachers for instruction beyond a grammar school curriculum. By 1867 most states required their teachers to pass a test for a state certificate. Such a test might include U.S. history, geography, spelling and grammar in addition to other basic skills. (3)
By 1900, Horace Mann’s idea of universal education took an even stronger hold. By this time 31 states had passed statutes requiring compulsory education for children ages 8 to 14. Nearly 75% of the teachers were women at this time. Rural teachers struggled with limited resources, run-down schools and inadequate funding. (4)
In the cities, the boards of education were formed by business and professional men who believed that schools should replicate a business model or hierarchy with the teachers at the bottom. The teachers felt powerless, underpaid and insecure with a lack of pension benefits, job security and poor working conditions. The teachers began to push back, forming teachers associations which later became unions. (2)
Throughout the 20th and into the 21st centuries teachers continue to struggle with some of the same issues, and it was within this context that Roosevelt astutely proposed the idea of a national day for teacher recognition.
In 2018 teachers are honored in a variety of ways. The National Education Association (NEA) recommended two on its website. The first is their Thank a Teacher project, a request to parents to make a video or take a photo of themselves thanking a teacher who has made a difference in the life of a child. The NEA shared these messages of appreciation to their members throughout the week. (1)
May 9 was designated as #REDforED, a day to show solidarity with teachers who are fighting for school funding, pay and better working conditions. Supporters were asked to dress in red. (1) A movement of teacher protest began in 2018 beginning with the walk out of teachers in West Virginia in February. This spurred walk outs and protests in other states including Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, and Kentucky.
Whether wearing red, organizing a luncheon or sending a card, one thing is indisputable - the recognition is but a small step yet well deserved.
On April 26, 1964, a fledgling country named Tanzania was born. Its name honors both parents - “Tan” after Tanganyika (the mainland of Tanzania) and “Zan” after Zanzibar, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean. On this first birthday of Tanzania in 1964, the founders mixed soil from the two countries symbolizing their union.
Photo Credit: Rawpixel.com
Since then April 26 has become known as Union Day to Tanzanians and is celebrated with parades, political speeches and cultural events.
The 54th celebration of Union Day in 2018 has distinguished itself. Protests threatened to disrupt the government’s festivities, taking place for the first time in its soon-to-be new capital city, Dodoma. First, a bit more history.
Tanganyika was originally colonized by the Germans, but after World War I came under the control of the British Empire. Zanzibar was controlled by the Arab Kingdom of Oman, but it, too, was taken over by the British as a protectorate in the late nineteenth century. Both countries achieved their independence from the British around the same time - Tanganyika in 1961 and Zanzibar in 1963. (1)
The union of the two countries was the first time on the African continent that two sovereign countries had unified. They shared a common struggle for independence from the British and a belief in Pan-Africanism. (3)
In 1973, Tanzania’s first president, Julius Nyerere, made the decision to move the capital from the coastal city of Dar es Salaam to centrally located Dodoma. Now, John Magufuli, Tanzania’s current president, has announced that he will fully implement this long awaited move.
Tanzanian flags flew along every major road in Dodoma during the 2018 Union Day celebrations. Representatives from more than 70 countries attended. (6) At Jamhuri Stadium, Magufuli praised the African Development Bank which financed projects “which contributed positively to our country’s socio-economic development and transformation.” The African Development Bank has invested nearly $4 billion on water sanitation, road construction and energy. (2)
Elsewhere, a different message was being spread through social media. This was one of disunity, calling for Tanzanian citizens to take to the streets in protest. US based Mange Kimambe organized the protests over what she claims is Magufuli’s autocratic style and the government’s human rights abuses. (4)
Photo Credit: Priscilla du Preez
Seven people were arrested in Arusha for their alleged role in the planned demonstrations. (5) Although the authorities banned the protests, some still showed up in Dar es Salaam to march. Nine were arrested. Elizabeth Mambosho, the leader of the main opposition party’s women’s wing, was also detained for inciting riots. (4)
Tanzanian law allows for demonstrations but organizers must notify the police, who can then reject the plan if they believe it to instill disorder. (5) For his part, Magufuli used his Union Day speech, broadcast on state television, to call for peace.
If April 26, 1964 was Tanzania’s birthday, perhaps April of 2018 is its growing pains.
During the sometimes shaky early post-colonial rule in African nations, Julius Nyerere distinguished himself by the humble, austere lifestyle he chose and for voluntarily and peacefully stepping aside when it was time for him to do so. Though Nyerere, Tanzanian president from 1961-1985, died in 1999, his legacy lives on both in his native country and internationally.
Born into the Zanaki tribe, southeast of Lake Victoria on April 13, 1922, Nyerere’s given name was Kambarage. He attended a Catholic mission school where he was widely recognized as a gifted student, leading him to attend college at Makerere University in Kampala and later receiving a scholarship to Edinburgh University where he received a master’s degree in history and economics. (1)
Influenced by the Roman Catholic priests throughout his education, Nyerere became Catholic himself, taking Julius as his baptismal name. (1)
Nyerere began his career as a teacher in Scotland. Soon, though, he became involved in the politics of his changing African homeland, called Tanganyika and ruled by the British at that time. After winning the election as president of a social organization, Tanganyika African Association, he quickly converted it into a political party. The party became known as Tanganyika African National Union and its formation on July 7, 1954 is now a national holiday called Saba Saba, or the seventh day of the seventh month. Nyerere and his newly formed party led the peaceful and successful struggle for independence. (1)
As president and an adherent of socialism, he established a system of collective farms called ujamaas through the Arusha Declaration. Through it the government coerced people scattered around tribal lands in rural areas to collect in villages or communes where they would have access to education and medical services. Many considered the policy a failure and criticized Nyerere for it. (3)
Still, he is regarded as a man who strove for peace, unity and humanity. (4) He led Tanzania through a unification with Zanzibar. (2) Believing in national unity over tribalism, he also promoted Swahili as a national language that would supplant dozens of tribal languages. In his free time, he even translated several of William Shakespeare’s works, including Romeo and Juliet and Julius Caeser, into Swahili. (1)
Nyerere’s reputation as a principled leader grew on the international stage as well. He led his country in a struggle against the brutal dictator, Idi Amin, in Uganda in the late 1970s. In the 1980s his was one of the strongest African voices against Apartheid in South Africa. (3)
And he set an admirable example as a humble leader, perhaps an anomaly among the corrupt leaders of the world who enrich themselves at the expense of their citizens. Nyerere never received more than $8,000 in salary during his time as president. (1) After completing his tenure, Nyerere left voluntarily and then continued to work as a statesman, advocating for cooperation between developing nations and on conflict resolution on the African continent. (4)
In the opening scene of the critically acclaimed 2008 movie “Slumdog Millionaire,” a young boy named Jamal plays cricket on an airport runway. Jamal and the other children wear rags, lack shoes and use sticks and rocks to play their game. Suddenly the local police appear and aggressively chase the boys through the streets of Mumbai, past massive garbage dumps and into the vast slum in which they live. For many of us, these depictions are all we know of the millions that the United Nations considers children in street situations.
April 12, the International Day for Street Children, gives kids like Jamal a voice. Danny Boyle, the director of “Slumdog Millionaire,” is one of several high profile supporters of the Consortium for Street Children (CSC) which sponsors this globally recognized day. The CSC, a network of NGOs and researchers across the globe, was launched in 1993 by then prime minister of Great Britain, John Major. It advocates for committing to equality, protecting every child, providing access to services and creating new solutions. (1)
The four steps stem from the 2017 U.N. general comment on children in street situations. The purpose of the general comment was to demand that governments pay attention to their most vulnerable surviving in the streets and ensure that these children have the ability to access their rights.
Before publishing their statement, a UN commission studied the issue by interviewing 327 children and young people from 32 countries. Some of these children depend on the streets to live and work either with or without family members. Others were children who formed connections with public spaces; the streets played a significant role in the children’s lives. The overwhelming majority of the children interviewed asked not for a material change in their lives, but instead for respect, dignity and human rights. (2)
In Tanzania, an estimated 437,500 children survive on the streets. (3) According to a 2002 study in a Tanzanian urban center, the government policies in Tanzania have failed because they have dealt with the symptoms rather than the causes. What are the causes? This same study suggested that poverty is the main reason. A survey by NGO Mkombozi states that for 22% of street children, their situation is a result of school exclusion and an inability to pay school fees. (6) UNICEF has reported that 75% of these children have experienced physical violence and 25% have suffered emotional abuse, driving them to the streets. (3) Others have suggested that the orphaning of children as a result of AIDS and other lethal diseases has led to a large population of street children.
Whatever the cause, the results are pernicious. The children lack safe and hygienic sleeping areas, a lack of safe drinking water, and rancid food leftovers. Vulnerability to poor health is one outcome. These ailments include malaria, diarrhea, respiratory problems, scabies and other skin-related infections. The children are also at a higher risk for physical and sexual abuse. (4)
In addition, the children, like Jamal in “Slumdog Millionaire,” suffer from and are targets of harassment by law enforcement. The authors of an in depth study of street children in Dar-Es-Salaam in 1994 and 95 noted the mindset. “The official government attitude towards street children has been very negative. Street children are considered to be hooligans, vagabonds and prone to commit crimes.” (4)
The researchers concluded that practices that would help these children included keeping the pavement clean and public bathrooms working. The availability of clean drinking and washing water in public kiosks would go a long way. The researchers added that it was addressing larger social and economic issues more aggressively that would bring about a stronger long-term outcome. (4)
Photo by Chinh Le Duc
The ability of impoverished children to access education is one such way to do that. A 2014 Tanzanian survey by an international labour organization documented that 5 million children aged 5 to 17 worked outside the home, and 3.1 million of these children worked under hazardous conditions that increased their risk for injury and disease. (5) An education would empower these children to be engaged in a productive activity off the streets or in a dangerous working situation and potentially pull them out of a cycle of poverty.
Saving Grace School in Arusha attempts to do just that. Because many Tanzanian children cannot afford school fees, uniforms and supplies, Saving Grace covers all of the costs. With more schools such as Saving Grace, perhaps the number of children endangered on the streets would begin to decrease.
Though “Slumdog Millionaire” had a Hollywood ending when Jamal competes and wins India’s version of Who Want to Be A Millionaire, most street children are left with only their wits and survival instinct. The day set aside to bring attention and dignity to these children also calls out government to participate in finding solutions.
Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano said it best: “Poverty is not written in the stars; under development is not one of God's mysterious designs.” With complacency, comes status quo. With the strategic goals and action of organizations such as the United Nations, World Economic Forum and World Health Organization, comes a more just and equitable world. International development in 2017 saw strides in disease management, water accessibility and local economic growth.
Each year as the snow flies in January in Davos, Switzerland, political, business and other leaders gather to discuss and shape global, regional, and industry agendas. The World Economic Forum is a not-for-profit foundation that fosters public-private cooperation in international development. The following three areas of focus were among the achievements that came out of the 2017 forum.
Social entrepreneur Gary White and actor Matt Damon of water.org announced a partnership with Stella Artois to help provide clean water to 3.5 million people. (5)
In striving to improve the delivery of digital cash payments in populations in crisis, business and humanitarian communities developed several essential principles. Digital cash proves to stimulate entrepreneurialism and advance local economies. (5)
The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations was launched. Its goal is to create vaccines that can quickly react and be released when an outbreak occurs. (5)
The World Health Organization reported on its own progress in 2017. With offices in over 150 countries, the WHO works with governments and other partners to fight infectious and noncommunicable diseases and to safeguard the safety of our air, food, water and medicine. Following are several highlights of the report.
The elimination of malaria in The Maldives and Sri Lanka was announced. The WHO continues to work on accelerating progress across the Southeast region where more than 230 million people are still at high risk. (1)
Achievements in combating neglected tropical diseases (NID) were reported. In 2007 a group of global partners agreed to target these NIDs. “The WHO has observed record-breaking progress towards bringing ancient scourges like sleeping sickness and elephantiasis to their knees,” said WHO Director-General, Dr Margaret Chan. (2)
Bhutan and the Maldives announced the elimination of measles in their countries. The WHO continues to boost measles immunization rates worldwide. (3)
In an effort to eradicate polio on the continent of Africa, 116 million children were vaccinated. (3)
The achievements of these organizations and others bolster the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The 17 goals in this agenda target the eradication of extreme poverty and the securing of the planet. The agenda’s preamble states: “We are determined to take the bold and transformative steps which are urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient path.” (4)
3. http://www.who.int/features/2017/year-review/en/#event-_2017- year-in-review
5. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/01/10-achievements-davos- 2017/
The pioneer story held my imagination captive during childhood. Caddie Woodlawn, Little House on the Prairie, and later Willa Cather’s novels. It was on my eighth birthday that I received the full series of Laura Ingalls Wilder books, each crispy, fresh-smelling book more enticing than the last. I was fortunate as a child to be provided such gifts. I was blessed to have parents who promoted reading and the accessibility of a library.
It was American author and literacy educator Pam Allyn who began in 2007 to advocate for literacy as not just a privilege for some but a human right for all. It was with this belief that she set about establishing the non-profit organization, LitWorld, which led to the formation of World Read Aloud Day, celebrated on February 1, 2018. (1)
Photo by Annie Spratt
Much like Felicia McKenzie’s founding of Brighter Tanzania Foundation, Allyn’s path began with a visit to an impoverished community in Africa which inspired her to act to improve the lives of kids. Specifically, in Kiberia, an area of extreme poverty in Nairobi, Kenya, she witnessed the intense desire of children to read, write and share stories. She also observed the obstacles that kept them from doing so. (1)
Photo by Steve Shreve
Through Allyn’s advocacy, World Read Aloud Day began in 2010. Organizers strive to bring awareness to the importance of reading aloud to all children. The need is real, the literacy statistics startling. Worldwide, 750 million adults (2/3 of these women) lack basic reading and writing skills. Reading aloud every day to children puts them almost a year ahead of children who lack this effort. As Allyn once said, “Stories are more than a gentle escape. They are a life raft.” (1)
LitWorld provides resources and activity ideas to teachers, parents and other adults participating. It promotes author read alouds while visiting classrooms or via video chats. Most importantly, LitWorld is a microphone through which the mission of advocating worldwide literacy is spread.
The mission is indeed global. Scholastic Books is one of LitWorld’s sponsors. It hosts read aloud events in Australia, Africa, Asia, Canada, India, Latin America, Puerto Rico, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. (2)
The message has been heard loud and clear in South Africa. In 2017, the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study, which assessed students in grade 4 of South Africa’s schools, released some dismal results. The study found that 78% of the students were illiterate. (5)
Though the results were alarming, the government had already recognized the need for literacy intervention. In 2012, a national campaign began called Nal’ibali which means “Here’s the story” in isiXhosa. The campaign identifies the link between reading for pleasure and improved outcomes for kids. (3)
Because the campaign attempts to create a reading culture, South Africans readily embraced Read Aloud Day. In fact, a different story is chosen for South African children each year and the country seeks to outdo its participation rate in reading this story from the preceding year. In 2018, South Africans read “The Final Minute” by local author Zkiswa Wanner. Nal’ibali provided downloadable copies of the story, available in 11 official languages. On Read Aloud Day, Wanner read the book in isiZulu to 1000 school children in an open-air venue. In total, over 1,000,000 South African children heard the story read that day. (4)
Back in the U.S., the importance of reading aloud to our children continues to gain attention. A Kids and Family Reading Report sponsored by Scholastic Books noted an increase in this beneficial habit between the years 2014 and 2016. The national study surveyed kids, ages 6 to 17 and their parents. The study found that the percentage of parents who read to their children before three months of age increased from 30% to 40% during this time period. Parents who read to their children 5 to 7 times per week increased from 55% to 62% for children between the ages of 3 and 5. (2)
Whether Laura Ingalls, Harry Potter or Dr. Seuss, a book allows a young mind to travel, transform and grow. A caring adult who reads it can take a child on an even longer journey.
Population: 12 million
Languages: French, Susu, Fulani, Mandingo
Area: 94,926 mi²
Life expectancy: Male 58.2, female 59.8
Median age: 19 years
Literacy: 30.4% (total) 22.8% (women)
School life expectancy: 8 years for girls, 10 years for boys
Population below poverty line: 40.9% on less than $1.25 a day.
Top religions: Islam, Christianity, indigenous beliefs
Summary: Located on the coast of west Africa, Guinea is formally known as The Republic of Guinea. This tiny nation has substantial mineral deposits, which generate a significant portion of the nation’s wealth. However, Guinea still has one of the poorest populations in west Africa. Regional instability has limited economic growth, and contributed to religious and ethnic tensions. Guinea also struggles with an overwhelming refugee population from Liberia and Sierra Leone. (1)
The recent Ebola virus had a significant impact on the Republic of Guinea. 11,000 died and 28,000 were infected. Before the outbreak in 2014, Guinea had severely underdeveloped health resources. There were high levels of maternal and infant mortality. On average it spent 9$ per capital on health, and there were fewer than 3 health workers per 20,000. This is partly why the disease spread unchecked for several months before it was detected. Another reason the disease could spread freely was because health workers were so rare, rural populations actually distrusted and avoided them. During the beginning of the outbreak, some people believed that health workers were spreading the disease. Health workers who won past this distrust created local clinics in tents near affected villages. This encouraged transparency and trust. Even so, a military presence was required to ensure quarantine compliance and health workers’ safety. (1, 5,6,7,8,9)
The outbreak strained available health resources beyond their capacity, and the Guinean Ministry of Health is still trying to repair their health system. A silver lining, perhaps, is that the intervention of foreign health care workers helped identify specific areas of improvement for the Guinean healthcare system. President Conde also mobilized hundreds of newly graduated medical students to work with Ebola patients. These young health workers now have a stake in building their health care system to prevent a similar outbreak occurring again. The process of fighting Ebola- setting up hospitals, clinics, clinical trials, marshalling and training health care workers, etc. is believed to have laid the groundwork for additional development of the Guinean healthcare system. The long-term sustainability of this groundwork remains to be seen, as donations and funding have fallen dramatically since the end of the outbreak. (1, 5,6,7,8,9)
Colonized by the French in 1891, they secured independence in 1958. The first President, Ahmed Sekou Toure remains in power until his death in 1984, when he is replaced by President Lansana Conte. In 1990, a new constitution is adopted which permits civilian leaders. 1993 ushers in the first multiparty election, in which Conte is the victor. Despite insurrections, violence, and protests, Conte remains in power until his death in 2008, whereupon the military seized control of the government. These decades of violence had crippled the economy, healthcare system, and other national infrastructure. After the assassination of the military leader, Captain Moussa Dadis Camara, there’s a gradual return to civillan rule. A contentious election in 2010 (which had to be run twice due to no clear victor) saw the eventual instatement of President Alpha Conde. Opposition supporters clashed with security forces and accused the president of rigging the presidential election and the parliamentary election. President Conde blamed the military government for emptying the nation’s treasury. In 2014 the international pandemic Ebola strikes, and spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone. US President Barak Obama sent 3,000 military personel to build health facilities and train health workers. In 2015 President Conde wins a second term, despite accusations of irregularities. (1, 2) Ebola-related travel restrictions were lifted in 2016. (3)
Educational attainment and access to education has fluctuated over the past few decades. In general, due to high levels of poverty, and insufficient school facilities, educational resources, and low teacher-to-student ratios, Guinea has low national educational attainment. The recent ebola crisis had further destabilized fragile infastucre. Primary education is mandatory in Guinea, a policy which has increased primary school enrollment and attendance, however poverty still creates obstacles for higher education, and girls have a lower rate of primary school completion than boys. (10,11, 12, 13, 14)
A year past the ebola crisis, Guinea is still rebuilding their educational infrastructure, and it remains to be seen what post-ebola enrollment and graduation rates average out at. Before the ebole crisis, in 2012, 55% of girls and 68% of boys completed primary school. 32% of girls and 41% of boys advanced to secondary education. (10) On average, girls will spend 8 years in school, and boys will spend 10. (14)
Given the critical necessity of building their healthcare infrastructure and training the next generation of healthcare workers, experts hope that these needs will be reflected in increased resources being directed into education.
Tourism is undeniably powerful: it moves people, money and ideas around the world, and in increasingly greater numbers. It has the potential to encourage economic development in far flung places and encourage mutual, positive understanding between people who would never otherwise meet. However, it also has the potential to waste or destroy natural resources, and the wealth gap between locals and visitors in some places might accidentally create exploitative situations. (7,9,10)
Fortunately, a vibrant community of international tourism organizations and travel agencies strives for an ethical balance of the diverse needs in this growing, global industry.
In fact, every fall, World Responsible Tourism Day celebrates over a decade of advocacy for beneficial and regulated tourism around the world. This year, the theme is sustainable development. In the past, it has focused on eco-tourism and poverty reduction. This year’s theme of sustainable development, focuses on both ecological sustainability and economic sustainability- encouraging initiatives that don’t strain the environment and have a good chance at continued economic success after an initial support period. (1,2,3,7)
Advocates for ethical and responsible tourism tend to focus on areas with sensitive ecosystems or significant poverty. Yet tourism can bring benefits and challenges to any environment. Take Paris, France for an example. A wealthy city in a first-world country which is regularly flooded with tourists (some well-mannered, some not) who contribute to the city's severe congestion and other infrastructure strains. 2017 might even be a record-breaking year for tourists pouring into the city, despite concerns about terrorism. Even though tourism presents diverse challenges for the city’s infrastructure, resources and security, it remains a leading economic force, creating significant employment and business opportunities.(4)
These and other strains are also felt by newly invigorated tourism industries in developing countries and rural regions, but these areas often lack the experience, resources and existing infrastructure to meet sudden increases in demand if a location suddenly surges in popularity. Tourists' interests can be seasonal and fad-driven, creating an unreliable or volatile source of income. (5,10)
Therefore, every year, international tourist organizations gather to celebrate successes and discuss areas which need improvement or protection. Governmental agencies also focus on tourism, especially harnessing the revenue provided by tourism to fuel ecological projects and infrastructure development. The Intergovernmental Committee of Experts (ICE), organized by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), convened recently to review how the expansion of the tourism sector could help support and promote Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and fuel nation-specific economic goals. (SDG are internationally promoted goals to encourage specific kinds of growth in developing regions.) (11) An example of harnessing tourism for the greater good can be found in can be found in Tanzania, where the Responsible Tourism Tanzania (RTT) organization focuses on the nation’s unique cultural, social and economic needs. (5,8)
One such recent success story is the Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (NCAA)’s recent nomination for registration as a Global Geopark of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). Dr. Freddy Manongi, director general of NCAA, stated that the area would soon get its registration as a 'Unesco Geopark.' (6)
Unesco Global Geoparks' are unified geographical spaces where sites and landscapes of international significance are holistically managed to protect, educate and sustainably develop the area. There are currently 127 Unesco Global Geoparks in 35 countries. (6)
UNESCO Global Geoparks empower local communities with opportunity to develop the common goal of promoting the area's geological interests, historical trends connected to geology, or natural beauty. These geoparks are built with a grass roots prosses, involving all regional stakeholders. Dr. Manongi reported that the area gets approximately 600,000 visitors annually, about half of those local. This official registration is a chance to further local and national pride in the region and attract more international tourists. In many ways, the registration serves to validate an area, certifying it’s natural, historical and sustainable merits, so international visitors get an extra ‘feel-good’ boost for supporting a good cause and giving back to the local area. More pragmatically, the registration also provides greater international exposure. (6) Dr. Manongi and other regional leaders are hopeful that the new registration will
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